The perineum refers to the area between the anus and genitals, extending from either the vaginal opening to the anus or the scrotum to the anus. Injuries, urinary tract issues, infections, and other conditions can cause perineum pain. A urinary tract infection UTI is an infection in any part of your urinary system, such as your urethra, bladder, ureters, or kidneys. They happen when bacteria enter your body through your urethra, causing an infection. Interstitial cystitis is another word for painful bladder syndrome.
Considered hypothetical by some modern anatomists, but still commonly used to logically divide the contents of the region. Your email address will not be published. Inferior fascia Tight taint urogenital diaphragmor perineal membrane. Without infection, treatments to relieve symptoms, such as prostate massage, sitz baths, biofeedback, and drugs, and procedures. In rare situations, a blunt injury to the perineum may burst a blood vessel inside the erectile tissue of the penis, causing a persistent partial erection that can Tight taint for days to years. Hidden categories: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list Articles with short description Use dmy dates from April Wikipedia articles with TA98 identifiers. Mack Wheldon offers a line specifically combining pima cotton with silver XT2 fabrics, which makes for a soft underwear with anti-odor properties that keep you fresh, dry and cool. Anatomical Lacrosse industrial hip black rubber boots [ edit on Wikidata ]. In other projects Wikimedia Commons. Repair of perineal trauma.
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- The perineum is the space between the anus and scrotum in the male and between the anus and the vulva in the female.
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Perineal injury is an injury to the perineum, the part of the body between the anus and the genitals, or sex organs. In males, the perineum is the area between the anus and the scrotum, the external pouch of skin that holds the testicles. Injuries to the perineum can happen suddenly, as in an accident, or gradually, as the result of an activity that persistently puts pressure on the perineum.
Sudden damage to the perineum is called an acute injury, while gradual damage is called a chronic injury. The perineum is important because it contains blood vessels and nerves that supply the urinary tract and genitals with blood and nerve signals. The perineum lies just below a sheet of muscles called the pelvic floor muscles. Pelvic floor muscles support the bladder and bowel. Injury to the blood vessels, nerves, and muscles in the perineum can lead to complications such as.
Bladder control problems. The nerves in the perineum carry signals from the bladder to the spinal cord and brain, telling the brain when the bladder is full. Those same nerves carry signals from the brain to the bladder and pelvic floor muscles, directing those muscles to hold or release urine. Injury to those nerves can block or interfere with the signals, causing the bladder to squeeze at the wrong time or not to squeeze at all.
Damage to the pelvic floor muscles can cause bladder and bowel control problems. Sexual problems. The perineal nerves also carry signals between the genitals and the brain. Signals from the brain direct the smooth muscles in the genitals to relax, causing greater blood flow into the penis.
In men, damaged blood vessels can cause erectile dysfunction ED , the inability to achieve or maintain an erection firm enough for sexual intercourse.
An internal portion of the penis runs through the perineum and contains a section of the urethra. As a result, damage to the perineum may also injure the penis and urethra. Acute perineal injury may result from surgical procedures that require an incision in the perineum:. However, sometimes a perineal incision may achieve the best angle to remove a life-threatening cancer. People should discuss the risks of any planned surgery with their health care provider so they can make an informed decision and understand what to expect after the operation.
These injuries include motorcycle and bike riding accidents, saddle horn injuries during horseback riding, falls on playground equipment such as monkey bars, and gymnastic accidents on an apparatus such as the parallel bars or pommel horse. In rare situations, a blunt injury to the perineum may burst a blood vessel inside the erectile tissue of the penis, causing a persistent partial erection that can last for days to years.
This condition is called high-flow priapism. If not treated, ED may result. When health care providers evaluate injuries in the genital area, they should consider the possibility of sexual abuse, even if the person or family members say the injury is the result of an accident such as a straddle injury.
The law requires that health care providers report cases of sexual abuse that come to their attention. The person and family members should understand the health care provider may ask some uncomfortable questions about the circumstances of the injury. Impalement injuries may involve metal fence posts, rods, or weapons that pierce the perineum. Impalement is rare, although it may occur where moving equipment and pointed tools are in use, such as on farms or construction sites.
Impalement can also occur as the result of a fall, such as from a tree or playground equipment, onto something sharp. If an impalement injury pierces the skin and muscles, the injured person needs immediate medical attention to minimize blood loss and repair the injury. In a regular chair, the flesh and bone of the buttocks partially absorb the pressure of sitting, and the pressure occurs farther toward the back than on a bike seat.
The straddling position on a narrow seat pinches the perineal blood vessels and nerves, possibly causing blood vessel and nerve damage over time. Research shows wider, noseless seats reduce perineal pressure. Occasional bike riding for short periods of time may pose no risk. However, men who ride bikes several hours a week—such as competitive bicyclists, bicycle couriers, and bicycle patrol officers—have a significantly higher risk of developing mild to severe ED.
Other activities that involve riding saddle-style include motorcycle and horseback riding. Constipation is defined as having a bowel movement fewer than three times per week.
People with constipation usually have hard, dry stools that are small in size and difficult to pass. Some people with constipation need to strain to pass stools. This straining creates internal pressure that squeezes the perineum and can damage the perineal blood vessels and nerves. Impalement injuries can also occur in construction or farm workers. Health care providers evaluate perineal injury based on the circumstances and severity of the injury. During a physical examination, the patient lies face up with legs spread and feet in stirrups.
The health care provider looks for cuts, bruises, or bleeding from the anus. The health care provider may insert a gloved, lubricated finger into the rectum to feel for internal injuries. Imaging is the general term for any technique used to provide pictures of bones and organs inside the body. An x-ray technician performs these procedures in an outpatient center or a hospital, and a radiologist—a doctor who specializes in medical imaging—interprets the images.
The person does not need anesthesia. However, people with a fear of confined spaces may receive light sedation before a magnetic resonance imaging MRI test. Treatments for perineal injury vary with the severity and type of injury. Tears or incisions may require stitches. Traumatic or piercing injuries may require surgery to repair damaged pelvic floor muscles, blood vessels, and nerves.
Treatment for these acute injuries may also include antibiotics to prevent infection. After a health care provider stabilizes an acute injury so blood loss is no longer a concern, a person may still face some long-term effects of the injury, such as bladder control and sexual function problems.
A health care provider can treat high-flow priapism caused by a blunt injury to the perineum with medication, blockage of the burst blood vessel under x-ray guidance, or surgery. In people with a chronic perineal injury, a health care provider will treat the complications of the condition. Preventing perineal injury requires being aware of and taking steps to minimize the dangers of activities such as construction work or bike riding:.
To prevent constipation , a diet with 20 to 35 grams of fiber each day helps the body form soft, bulky stool that is easier to pass. High-fiber foods include beans, whole grains and bran cereals, fresh fruits, and vegetables such as asparagus, brussels sprouts, cabbage, and carrots.
For people prone to constipation, limiting foods that have little or no fiber, such as ice cream, cheese, meat, and processed foods, is also important. A health care provider can give information about how changes in eating, diet, and nutrition could help with constipation. Clinical trials are part of clinical research and at the heart of all medical advances.
Clinical trials look at new ways to prevent, detect, or treat disease. Researchers also use clinical trials to look at other aspects of care, such as improving the quality of life for people with chronic illnesses. Find out if clinical trials are right for you.
Clinical trials that are currently open and are recruiting can be viewed at www. The NIDDK translates and disseminates research findings through its clearinghouses and education programs to increase knowledge and understanding about health and disease among patients, health professionals, and the public.
In males, the perineum is the area between the anus and the scrotum. Why is the perineum important? What are the complications of perineal injury? Injury to the blood vessels, nerves, and muscles in the perineum can lead to complications such as bladder control problems sexual problems Bladder control problems.
Common causes of acute perineal injury in males include perineal surgery straddle injuries sexual abuse impalement Perineal Surgery Acute perineal injury may result from surgical procedures that require an incision in the perineum: A prostatectomy is the surgical removal of the prostate to treat prostate cancer and other prostate problems.
The prostate, a walnut-shaped gland in men, surrounds the urethra at the neck of the bladder and supplies fluid that goes into semen. In one approach, called the radical perineal prostatectomy, the surgeon makes an incision between the scrotum and the anus. In a retropubic prostatectomy, the surgeon makes the incision in the lower abdomen, just above the penis.
Both approaches can damage blood vessels and nerves affecting sexual function and bladder control. Perineal urethroplasty is surgery to repair stricture, or narrowing, of the portion of the urethra that runs through the perineum. Without this procedure, some men would not be able to pass urine. However, the procedure does require an incision in the perineum, which can damage blood vessels or nerves.
Colorectal or anal cancer surgery can injure the perineum by cutting through some of the muscle around the anus to remove a tumor. One approach to anal cancer surgery involves making incisions in the abdomen and the perineum.
Impalement Impalement injuries may involve metal fence posts, rods, or weapons that pierce the perineum. The straddling position on a narrow seat pinches the perineal blood vessels and nerves. Constipation Constipation is defined as having a bowel movement fewer than three times per week. How is perineal injury evaluated? Computerized tomography CT scans use a combination of x-rays and computer technology to create images.
For a CT scan, a health care provider may give the patient a solution to drink and an injection of a special dye, called contrast medium. CT scans require the patient to lie on a table that slides into a tunnel-shaped device where an x-ray technician takes the x-rays. CT scans can show traumatic injury to the perineum. An MRI may include the injection of contrast medium. During an MRI, the patient, although usually awake, remains perfectly still while the technician takes the images, which usually only takes a few minutes.
The technician will take a sequence of images from different angles to create a detailed picture of the perineum. The patient will hear loud mechanical knocking and humming noises. Ultrasound uses a device, called a transducer, that bounces safe, painless sound waves off organs to create an image of their structure.
Color Doppler is enhanced ultrasound technology that shows blood flowing through arteries and veins. Blood flowing through arteries appears red, while blood flowing through veins appears blue.
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Perineum Pain: Causes of Sore or Burning Perineum in Males/Females
The perineum is the space between the anus and scrotum in the male and between the anus and the vulva in the female. There is some variability in how the boundaries are defined.
The perineum is an erogenous zone for both males and females. The perineum is generally defined as the surface region in both males and females between the pubic symphysis and the coccyx.
The perineum is below the pelvic diaphragm and between the legs. It is a diamond-shaped area that includes the anus and, in females, the vagina. The perineum corresponds to the outlet of the pelvis.
A line drawn across the surface connecting the ischial tuberosities divides the space into two triangles:. The formal anatomical boundaries of the perineum may be said to be: . The perineal body or central tendon of perineum is a pyramidal fibromuscular mass in the middle line of the perineum at the junction between the urogenital triangle and the anal triangle. It is found in both males and females. In males, it is found between the bulb of the penis and the anus ; in females, it is found between the vagina and anus, and about 1.
The perineal body is essential for the integrity of the pelvic floor , particularly in females. Its rupture during vaginal birth leads to widening of the gap between the anterior free borders of levator ani muscle of both sides, thus predisposing the woman to prolapse of the uterus , rectum , or even the urinary bladder.
At this point, the following muscles converge and are attached: 1. External anal sphincter 2. Bulbospongiosus muscle 3. Superficial transverse perineal muscle 4. Anterior fibers of the levator ani 5. Fibers from male or female external urinary sphincter 6.
Deep transverse perineal muscle. The terminology of the perineal fascia can be confusing, and there is some controversy over the nomenclature. This stems from the fact that there are two parts to the fascia, the superficial and deep parts, and each of these can be subdivided into superficial and deep parts.
The region of the perineum can be considered a distinct area from pelvic cavity, with the two regions separated by the pelvic diaphragm. The following areas are thus classified as parts of the perineal region:. Extensive deformation of the pelvic floor occur during a vaginal delivery. The anogenital distance is a measure of the distance between the midpoint of the anus and the underside of the scrotum or the vagina. Studies show that the human perineum is twice as long in males as in females.
There are claims that sometimes the perineum is excessively repaired after childbirth, using a so-called " husband stitch " and that this can increase vaginal tightness or result in pain during intercourse.
There are a number of American slang terms commonly used for this area of the human body, such as "taint. Annotated male perineum: 1. Raphe perinealis. Testicles, Scrotum. Raphe scrotalis. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Region of the body including the perineal body and surrounding structures. Not to be confused with Peritoneum. Terminologia anatomica: international anatomical terminology. Retrieved 25 August The erogenous zones: their nerve supply and significance.
Mayo Clin Proc. July British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Anatomy of the Human Body. Manual of Obstetrics, 3rd Edition. West Berkshire perineal management trial.
Br J Obstet Gynaecol. Repair of perineal trauma. Oxford: Oxford University Press, Women's sexuality after childbirth: a pilot study. Archives of Sexual Behavior ; 28 2 : Age-related pelvic floor modifications and prolapse risk factors in postmenopausal women. Menopause ; 17 1 : Environmental Health Perspectives.
January Journal of Clinical Investigation , 13 March Retrieved 15 October The Free Dictionary. Muscles of perineum. Ischioanal fossa Pudendal canal. Colles' fascia in scrotum and penis: Dartos. Inferior fascia Perineal membrane Superior fascia. Inferior fascia Superior fascia. Authority control TA98 : A Categories : Perineum Pelvis Human surface anatomy. Hidden categories: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list Articles with short description Use dmy dates from April Wikipedia articles with TA98 identifiers.
The muscles of the female perineum. Musculoskeletal system. Perineal artery , dorsal artery of the penis and deep artery of the penis. Perineal nerve , posterior scrotal nerves , dorsal nerve of the penis or dorsal nerve of clitoris. Primarily superficial inguinal lymph nodes.
Anatomical terminology [ edit on Wikidata ]. Superficial perineal pouch. Contains superficial perineal muscles: transversus perinei superficialis , bulbospongiosus , ischiocavernosus. Inferior fascia of urogenital diaphragm , or perineal membrane. Contains the deep perineal muscles: transversus perinei profundus , sphincter urethrae membranaceae. Superior fascia of the urogenital diaphragm. Considered hypothetical by some modern anatomists, but still commonly used to logically divide the contents of the region.
Anal triangle sphincter ani external internal. Superficial perineal fascia Colles' fascia in scrotum and penis: Dartos. TA98 : A